Insurrections and revolutions have been among the most transformative events in history, for they destroy powerful systems while creating new ideas, values, relations, and experiences. The modern world, in fact, is largely the outcome of several waves of revolutions and counter-revolutions. In this course, we will examine, on the one hand, the specificity of some key insurrections and revolutions in different places and historical moments. At the same time, we will analyze each case-study (from the Haitian Revolution to the eco-feminist revolutionary collectives in western Syria) in order to debate broader conceptual questions about the power, rhythms, intensity, failures, and liberating possibilities of rebellions and revolutions in recent history and, especially, in our fraught present. This course has been conceived with the conviction that debating the question of revolution is an urgent collective task giving the environmental and social catastrophe looming over the world.
After discussing why the urgency posed by global warming is reviving the question of revolution, we will be examine, first, what could be called the “enigma” of revolutions: why they take place in some moments and places and not in others; or as Rosa Luxemburg put it, the enigmatic fact that revolutions seem impossible until they happen, and are subsequently felt as inevitable (case study: the rebellions that led to fall of the Berlin Wall). We will then analyze how the general contours of the modern world were largely forged by the great revolutions of the late 1700s on both sides of the Atlantic. Our main case-study will be, in counterpoint to the French and American Revolutions, what was then the most radical insurrection in world history, the Haitian Revolution (1791-1804), led by people of African ancestry enslaved by French colonialism. We shall then de-masculinize the image of insurrections by highlighting the role of women as revolutionary subjects and the growing salience of feminism as a force for radical change (case studies: witch-hunts in the European middle-ages; the Paris Commune; the Spanish Civil War; the Argentine feminist rebellion). We will subsequently analyze two contrasting forms of revolutionary action: the commune and the party. First, we’ll focus on the Paris Commune: the festive, popular rebellion that took over Paris for two months in 1871, only to be massacred by the French army. The following week we will focus on the most famous revolutionary party: the Bolshevik Party that led the 1917 Russian Revolution, and especially how it countered the alleged organizational limits of the Paris Commune with leadership, discipline, and attentiveness to logistics and terrain. We will then examine those cases in which revolutions lead to “revolutionary terror,” i.e. unbound violence against the (alleged) enemies of the revolution, partly replicating the state terror that they had sought to fight (case studies: the Algerian anti-colonial insurrection and the French Jacobins). The following week we will discuss the emotional and bodily nature of insurrections, and the fact that what makes multitudes rebel are usually affective rather than purely ideological reasons (case studies: the Central American insurrections of the 1970s-1980s).
In the last section, we will see discuss how in the past few decades radical practices of resistance worldwide have moved away from the old (and largely failed) paradigm of revolutions as explosive events led by a leader-vanguard and toward the cultivation of everyday, territorial, bottom-up forms of insurgent, anti-systemic power. We will first examine the leading role played by indigenous people in rethinking rebellions as grassroots forms of territorial and communal control (case studies: the Zapatista uprising in Mexico and radical indigenous activism in Canada). The following two weeks we will discuss, first, the leaderless insurrections that shook the world in 2011 by creating large assemblies in public spaces (case studies: the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street) and the blockades that seek to interrupt the flows and infrastructures of the global metropolis (case study: the blockade of fossil fuel infrastructures in western Canada). We will conclude the course with a discussion on the grassroots efforts, taking place on multiple continents, to rethink revolutions via a revival of the figure of “the commune” as the territorial manifestation of radical democracy (case studies: ZAD and NOTAV in Europe; the Venezuelan communes; the Rojava revolution in western Syria).
Course Schedule and Readings
The texts listed as "further readings" are optional, but their relevance for that week's topic will be discussed in class.
Week 1. Introduction
Week 2. Thinking About the Revolution in Urgent Times
- Films: Disruption (2014, 51 minutes) and The Inside Story of Extinction Rebellion (2018, The Guardian, 14 minutes)
- Malm, Andreas. 2018. Revolution in a Warming World: Lessons from the Russian and Syrian Revolutions. The Bullet. April 23, 2018.
- Wallace-Wells, David. 2018. The UN Says Climate Genocide is Coming: It’s Actually Worse Than That. The New York Magazine. October 10, 2018.
- The Invisible Committee. 2017. Now. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e). Chapter 1: Tomorrow is Cancelled (pp. 7-18).
- Malm, Andreas. 2018. A Lesson in How Not to Mitigate Climate Change. Verso Blog. Posted December 7, 2018 (2 pages).
- Klein, Naomi. 2014 This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Environment. New York: Simon and Schuster. Chapter 2: Hot Money (pp. 64-95).
Week 3. The Enigma of Revolutions: Why do People Revolt? Why They Don't?
- Marx, Karl and Fredrik Engels 1992 (1848) The Communist Manifesto. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1: Bourgeois and Proletarians (pp. 2-16).
- Roseberry, William. 1994. Hegemony and the Language of Contention. In Everyday Forms of State Formation, edited by Gilbert Joseph and Daniel Nugent. Pp. 355-366. Durham: Duke University Press.
- Yurchak, Alexei. 2005. Everything Was Forever, Until it Was No More: The Last Soviet Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Conclusion (pp. 282-298).
Week 4. Revolution in the Colonies: Radical Universalism vs. Eurocentric Liberalism (Haiti, 1791-1804)
- Film: Egalite for All:Toussaint Louverture & The Haitian Revolution (PBS, 2009).
- James, C.L.R. 1989. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the Saint Dominique Revolution. New York: Vintage. Preface to the First Edition (pp. i-xxv) and Chapter 4: The Santo Domingo Masses Begin (pp. 85-117).
- Trouillot, Michel-Rolph. 1995. Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Boston: Beacon Press. Chapter 3: An Unthinkable History (pp 70-107).
- Arendt, Hanna. 2006 . On Revolution. New York: Penguin. Chapter 1: The Meaning of Revolution (pp. 11-48).
- Guha, Ranajit. 1999. Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India. Durham: Duke University Press. Introduction (pp. 1-17).
Week 5. Women as Revolutionary Subjects: Undoing Patriarchy (Medieval Europe; The Paris Commune; Revolutionary Spain; Argentina)
- Film: Libertarias (1996, directed by Vicente Aranda; excerpt)
- Federici, Silvia. 2004. Caliban and the Witch. Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia. Preface (pp. 7-10).
- Thomas, Edith. 2007 . The Women Incendiaries. Chicago: Haymarket. Introduction (pp. i-xiv) and Chapter Ten: Ambulance Nurses, Canteen Workers, Fighters (pp. 133-149).
- Gago, Verónica. 2018. Spirituality as a Force of Rebellion: The Movement for Legal Abortion in Argentina. Verso Blog. Posted June 18, 2018.
- Lines, Lisa 2009. Female Combatants in the Spanish Civil War: Milicianas on the Front Lines and in the Rearguard. Journal of International Women’s Studies. 10(4): 168-187.
Week 6. The Revolutionary Commune: Radical Democracy (Paris, 1871)
- Film: The Commune (2000, directed by Peter Watkin; excerpt).
- Ross, Kristin. 2016. Communal Luxury: The Political Imaginary of the Paris Commune. London: Verso. Chapter 1: Beyond the “Cellular Regime of Nationality” (pp. 11-38).
- Badiou, Alain. 2008. The Communist Hypothesis. London: Verso. Chapter III: The Paris Commune: A Political Declaration on Politics (pp. 168-228)
- Marx, Karl. 1988  The Civil War in France. New York: International Publishers. Parts III and IV, pp. 54-85.
Week 7. The Revolutionary Party: Leadership and Logistics (Russia, 1917)
- Luxemburg, Rosa. 1940 . The Russian Revolution. Workers Age Publishers: New York. Chapter 1: Fundamental Significance of the Russian Revolution.
- Trotsky, Leon. 2008. History of the Russian Revolution. Chicago: Heymarket. Chapter 42: The Art of Insurrection (Pp. 740-763).
- Malaparte, Curzio. 1931. The Technique of Revolution. Aurora, IL: Morris. Chapter 1: The Bolsheviks’ Coup d’Etat and Trotzky’s Tactics.
- Miéville, China. 2017. October: The Story of the Russian Revolution. London: Verso. Chapter 10: Red October (pp. 256-304).
- Luxemburg, Rosa. 1940 . The Russian Revolution. Workers Age publishers: New York. Chapter 8: Democracy and Dictatorship.
Week 8. Revolutionary Terror: Unbound Negativity (Algeria and the French Jacobins)
- Film: The Battle of Algiers (1967; directed by Gillo Pontecorvo, excerpt).
- Fanon, Frantz. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press. Concerning Violence (pp. 35-95, selections).
- Horne, Alistair. 2006. A Savage War for Peace: Algeria, 1954-1962. New York: New York Review of Books. Chapter 9: The Battle of Algiers (pp. 183-207).
- Žižek, Slavoj. 2008. In Defense of Lost Causes. London: Verso. Chapter 4: Revolutionary Terror from Robespierre to Mao (pp. 157-210).
Week 9. The Affective Power of Insurrections: Emotional Warfare and its Afterlives (the Central American Insurrections: 1970s-1980s)
- Film: In the Name of the People:El Salvador’s Civil War (1985, excerpt).
- Cabezas, Omar. 1986. The Mountain Mourns a Son. Fire from the Mountain: The Making of a Sandinista. Pp. 115-128. New York: Plume Books.
- Beasley-Murray, Jon. 2010. Posthegemony: Political Theory and Latin America. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Chapter 3: Escalón 1989: Deleuze and Affect (pp. 125-173).
- Guest speaker: Professor Jon Beasley-Murray (French, Hispanic and Italian Studies, UBC).
- Anderson, Jon Lee. 2018. “Fake News” and Unrest in Nicaragua. The New Yorker. September 3, 2018.
Week 10. Indigenous Insurrections: Making Territories in Rebellion (The Zapatistas in Mexico and radical indigenous activism in Canada)
- Film: A Place Called Chiapas (1998; directed by Nettie Wild, excerpt)
- Speed, Shannon. 2007. Rights in Rebellion: Indigenous Struggle and Human Rights in Chiapas. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Chapter 7: “Improving the Paths of Resistance” (pp. 155-173).
- Coulthard, Glen. 2014. Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Conclusions: Lessons from Idle No More: The Future of Indigenous Activism (pp. 151-179).
- Guest speaker: Professor Glen Coulthard (First Nations and Indigenous Studies and Political Science, UBC).
- Simpson, Leanne. 2017. As We Have Always Done: Indigenous Freedom Through Radical Resistance. Conclusion: Toward Radical Resurgent Struggle (pp. 233-247).
Week 11. Leaderless Insurrections: Assemblies in Public Squares (the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street)
- Bayat, Asef. 2017. Revolution without Revolutionaries. Making Sense of the Arab Spring. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Chapter 6: Square and Counter-Square (pp. 113-134).
- Winegar, Jessica. 2012. The Privilege of Revolution: Gender, Class, Space, and Affect in Egypt. American Ethnologist. 39 (1): 67–70.
Jeffrey. 2012. Reflections on #Occupy Everywhere: Social Media, Public Space, and Emerging Logics of Aggregation.
American Ethnologist. 39(2):
- Butler, Judith. 2015. Notes Toward a Performative Theory of Assembly. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Chapter 5: “We, the People”: Thoughts on Freedom of Assembly (Pp. 154-192).
- Dean, Jodi 2016. Crowds and Party. London: Verso. Introduction.
- Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2017. Assembly. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Preface (Pp. i-xxii).
Week 12. Interrupting the Metropolis: Blockades, Sabotage, Counter-logistics
- The Invisible Committee. 2015. To Our Friends. Los Angeles: Semiotext(e). Chapter 3: Power is Logistics, Block Everything! (Pp. 81-98).
- Toscano, Alberto. 2011. Logistics and Opposition. Mute. 3(2):1-13.
- Cowen, Deborah. 2017. Infrastructures of Empire and Resistance. Verso Blog. Posted 25 January 25, 2017.
- Bernes, Jasper. 2013. Logistics, Counterlogistics, and the Communist Prospect. Endnotes 3 (1-14).
Week 13. The Coming Communal Revolution? Final Discussion
- Clover, Joshua. 2016. Riot. Strike. Riot: The New Era of Uprisings. London: Verso. Chapter 9: Riot Now: Square, Street, Commune (pp. 175-192).
- Ross, Kristin. 2018. Preface: Making a Territory. In The ZAD and NOTAV: Territorial Struggles and the Making of a New Political Intelligence, by the Mauvaise Troupe Collective. London: Verso (pp. ix-xxiii).
- Ciccariello-Maher, George. 2016. Building the Commune: Radical Democracy in Venezuela. London: Verso. Introduction (pp. 1-12), Chapter 1: A History of the Commune (pp. 14-28), and Conclusion: A Communal Future? (pp. 121-135).
- Saed. 2017. From the October Revolution to Revolutionary Rojava: An Ecosocialist Reading. Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 28 (4): 3-20.